Nanotechnology is the method of rearranging atoms and molecules and the application of tiny matter for various purposes. Nanotechnology is of recent origin and is termed as the technology of future. In metric system nano means 0.000000001. In nanotechnology a ‘nanometre’ is a billionth of a metre and objects of these dimensions can be viewed only through special tools called scanning probe microscope. Though nanotechnology is used in diverse fields like medicine, information technology, sports etc, the full potential is yet to be revealed.
Nanotechnology : Major milestones
1985 : Invention of bucky-ball or Carbon 60. Carbon 60 resembles a soccer ball made of twenty hexagons and twelve pentagons.
1988: It was proved that atoms and molecules can be moved in a planned manner.
1991: Invention of carbon nanotube. It is a cylindrical nanostructure with unique strength. It is the most exciting nano material which can be grown into fibres of any length.
Nanotechnology: Importance of nanoparticles, nanocrystals and nanowires.
In nanotechnology, the tiny matter is referred as nanoparticles. They position between bulk materials and atomic structures. Properties of bulk materials remain constant. But the properties of materials change as the size approaches nanoscale. Nanoparticles find applications in biotechnology, pharmacology and technology. Thus all the discoveries and inventions of the past will undergo drastic changes with the advancement of nanotechnology.
Nanocrystals are tiny particles with a width of around 1/80,000 of the diameter of a hair. They are light but very strong. They are roughly spherical in shape. These crystals can be used to make strong and durable metal parts by adding with other metals.
Nanowires are very tiny wires composed metals or semiconductors such as silicon ,zinc oxide and germanium. They have an excellent length to width ratio and can be used in development of faster computers and nanorobots.
Nanotechnology: Major applications
Nanotechnology now plays important roles in various fields like engineering, space technology, medicine, electronics, energy and agriculture.
In medicine, nano particles can be used to deliver drugs directly to the affected cells. They can be applied for tasks like fighting cancer cells or viruses, anti-ageing processes etc. They are also applied in various monitors, sensors, pacemakers, biochips, hearing aids and injectors.
With better material efficiency and reduced costs, nanotechnology can be applied in energy field for better battery storage, efficient solar cell production and better conversion of solar energy.
With the application of nanotechnology in electronics, many electrical and electronic equipments will become smaller in size and efficient in performance. Computers will be replaced with nanocomputers having higher speed and performance. Nanotechnology will aid development of super conductivity. Nanocomputers capable of adapting themselves to external factors like heat and light can be used for various purposes from repairing satellites to fighting cancer cells.
Nanotechnology offers the possibility of destroying cancer affected cells alone without damaging nearby cells. Surgical tools can be made smaller with better efficiency. Nano-biotechnology applies nanotools to medical and biological problems.
Noanotechnology in coming days will redefine other fields also like industry, agriculture and food industry, military, sports, construction and communication. Ideas and inventions of past will undergo tremendous transformation.
Watch out for the developments in the field of nanotechnology!!!!!!!.
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