Mughal Empire was the most prominent empire in the Indian subcontinent. It was established in 1526 by the victory of Babur over Ibrahim Lodhi in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). During the zenith of Mughal era, Indian subcontinent was the world's largest economy. Most eminent ruler from Mughal dynasty was Akbar. In 1739, the Mughals were defeated in the Battle of Karnal and with that the decline of the Mughal dynasty began. The last emperor, Bahadur Shah II, ruled only a small city Shahjahanabad. He supported the first freedom struggle of India (Indian Rebellion) in 1857. The attempt failed and he was tried by the British East India Company for treason, and exiled to Rangoon. With the failed coup, the rule India was taken over by the British in 1858.
Mughal Buildings and World Heritage List
Mughal era witnessed the architectural renaissance of India. The buildings constructed during the rule of Mughals are commonly known as Mughal Buildings. The Mughal buildings create owe by their sheer size and grandeur. They are well-known for their beauty and craftsmanship. The era of Shah Jahan (1628-1658) is considered as the golden age of Mughal architecture. Many of the large monuments of Mughal era were created during his period. Some of the most well -known Mughal buildings are Taj Mahal, Moti Masjid, Fatepur Sikri and tomb of Sheikh Salim Chisti at Agra, the Red Fort and the Jama Masjid in Delhi and the Lahore Fort.
Almost all Mughal rulers, probably with the exception of Aurangazeb, were famous builders. Their constructions were inspired by the Persian style. The Mughals constructed outstanding tombs, forts, mosques, gardens and cities. The structure and character of Mughal buildings have a uniform pattern. These buildings have fascinating tales behind the construction. Many of the buildings, which are part of history, have found their places in the UNESCO list of world heritage centres.
Taj Mahal – The Jewel of Mughal buildings
The jewel of Mughal buildings is Taj Mahal. This is one of the most famous buildings of the world and stands as manifestation of romantic imagination of mankind. It is a memorial built by emperor Shah Jahan for his wife Mumtaz Mahal who died in 1631. The magnificent memorial was built over a period of twenty years with the efforts of twenty thousand people.
Fatepur Sikri – Capital city of Akbar’s era
The greatest contribution from Akbar was Fatepur Sikri, near Agra. This was his capital city. It was constructed during the period 1569-1574. The presence of religious and secular buildings stands as testimony for the emperor’s aim of achieving social and religious integration. The lovely tomb of the saint Sheikh Salim Chisti in Fatepur Sikri was also built by Akbar.
Jama Masjid and Red Fort
Jama Masjid, the largest mosque in India, has the capacity to hold 25,000 devotees at a time. This is another contribution of emperor Shah Jahan. Around 5000 workmen were involved in the construction and it was completed in 1656.
Lal Quila or Red Fort and Jama Masjid faces each other. The work started in 1638 was completed in 1648. The massive fort was another work of Shah Jahan.
Gol Gombas and Humayun’s tomb
Gol Gombaz in Bijapur is the tomb of Mohammed Adil Shah. This huge building towers over Bijapur and its dome is the largest in the world. The dome contains a whispering gallery, where even the softest whisper can be heard distinctly on the opposite side.
Humayun’s tomb situated in Delhi was built in 1565 by his widow Haji Begum. It integrates Persian and Indian styles of architecture. The tomb stands in the centre of a square shaped enclosed garden. What is UNESCO’s Intangible Cultural Heritage List?
Mughal Empire and Mughal Buildings in India
Buildings constructed during the rule of Mughals are known as Mughal Buildings. The Mughal buildings creates owe by their sheer size and grandeur