What are ‘biogeographical’ zones?« Back to Questions List

No two locations on earth will have the same kind of flora and fauna. Depending on the local conditions, different species live in particular places. But when viewed from a global perspective, certain patterns have been clearly observed all through the earth. Thus scientists came up with what they call ‘biogeographical zones’. Biogeography is all about the distribution of different species of plants, organisms and ecosystems. 

As a whole our Earth has been divided into six major biogeographical zones which are further sub divided from each country’s perspective. The Nearctic region, Neotropical region, Palearctic region, Ethiopian region, Oriental region and Australian region constitute the major zones.

biogeographical zone

‘Nearctic’ region is the Northern part of the American continent. Here lives certain unique species like pronghorn antelopes and giant sequoias. Neotropical regions are associated with the southern part of America. Toucans, sloth bears and monkeys with powerful grasping tails live here.

The Palearctic region includes northern Europe and Asia. It has much in common with the Nearctic and it has fewer unique species than any other region.

Ethiopian region covers most of the African continent. Giraffes, gorillas, chimpanzees and zebras are typical of African regions. Lions and elephants can also be found here.

Oriental region covers India and many more tropical regions bordered by the Himalayas in the north. Lions and elephants occur here too.

In the Australian region occur marsupials like Kangaroos with a great variety than anywhere else.


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